Palm oil is a crucial commodity utilized across various sectors such as food and energy. However, its price volatility poses challenges for investors and stakeholders. To navigate this industry effectively, it is essential to have knowledge of prediction tools for crude palm oil (CPO) prices.

In short, crude palm oil (CPO) is a natural oil extracted from the fruit pulp of oil palms. In contrast to its dark yellowish counterpart, CPO has a reddish hue due to its source fruit. The fruit of the oil palm tree is efficiently utilized, with the kernel also yielding palm kernel oil. Besides its culinary applications, palm oil, often referred to as vegetable lard, finds extensive use in toiletries and various food items.

Beyond its remarkable efficiency, boasting higher yields per hectare compared to other vegetable oils, palm oil stands out as the most abundantly produced edible oil based on 2015 data.1 With the global population on the rise, demand for this resource continues to escalate steadily. In addition to its widespread use in cooking and food manufacturing, palm oil finds its way into an array of products including cosmetics, toiletries (such as shampoo and soap), and biodiesel, highlighting its versatility and driving the expansion of the palm oil cultivation sector.

Factors Affecting CPO Prices

Crude Palm Oil (CPO) stands as a cornerstone commodity, pivotal not only in the realms of culinary pursuits but also in diverse industrial applications. Its ubiquitous presence in food, cosmetics, and biofuels underscores its significance on the global stage. However, the pricing dynamics of CPO remain intricate and subject to multifaceted influences that traverse geographical, economic, and environmental domains.

Understanding the factors that sway CPO prices is imperative for stakeholders ranging from producers to consumers, investors to policymakers. In this discourse, we embark on a journey to unravel the intricate web of influences shaping the volatility of CPO prices, delving into the interplay of supply and demand dynamics, climatic variables, geopolitical tensions, and the evolving landscape of sustainability practices.

1. Supply

The concept of supply plays a pivotal role in determining prices. Supply refers to the total amount of crude palm oil (CPO) produced and available in the market at any given time. This fundamental aspect of the market dynamics significantly influences the fluctuations observed in CPO prices. Factors Influencing Supply:

  • Production Levels: The primary driver of supply in the palm oil industry is the production levels of palm oil. This includes factors such as the number of oil palm plantations in operation, cultivation practices, and technological advancements in oil extraction processes. Higher production levels typically result in increased supply, while lower production levels lead to decreased supply.
  • Weather Conditions: The weather plays a crucial role in determining palm oil production levels. Favorable weather conditions, including adequate rainfall and optimal temperatures, promote healthy palm oil tree growth and higher yields. Conversely, adverse weather events such as droughts, floods, or extreme temperatures can disrupt production, leading to reduced supply.
  • Harvesting Cycles: Palm oil trees have specific harvesting cycles, with peak production periods alternating with periods of lower output. Understanding these cycles is essential for accurately assessing supply levels in the market. Factors such as the age of palm oil trees, replanting schedules, and seasonal variations impact the timing and quantity of CPO available for sale.
  • Government Policies and Regulations: Government policies and regulations related to agriculture, land use, and trade can significantly influence the palm oil supply. Measures such as subsidies for palm oil producers, land allocation for oil palm plantations, and import/export tariffs can impact production levels and market availability.

2. Demand

Demand serves as a cornerstone factor influencing price dynamics, particularly in the crude palm oil (CPO) industry. Demand refers to the desire and ability of buyers to purchase a certain quantity of CPO at various price levels. The interplay between demand and supply ultimately determines the equilibrium price of CPO in the market. Factors Influencing Demand:

  • Population Growth: The global population’s size and growth rate have a direct impact on the demand for essential commodities like palm oil. As the population expands, so does the demand for food, cosmetics, and other products containing palm oil, driving overall demand higher.
  • Economic Factors: Economic conditions, including income levels, GDP growth, and consumer purchasing power, significantly influence demand for palm oil products. During periods of economic prosperity, consumers tend to have more disposable income, leading to increased consumption of goods containing palm oil.
  • Consumer Preferences: Changing consumer preferences and dietary habits also play a crucial role in shaping demand for palm oil. Trends toward healthier eating habits, sustainable sourcing, and organic products can impact the types and quantities of palm oil products demanded by consumers.
  • Industrial Applications: Palm oil finds extensive use in various industries beyond food, including cosmetics, toiletries, biofuels, and industrial lubricants. Demand from these sectors is influenced by factors such as technological advancements, regulatory policies, and market trends, all of which impact overall demand for CPO.

3. Substitution

The substitution phenomenon by other oils is a significant factor impacting the pricing dynamics of crude palm oil (CPO). Substitution refers to the tendency of consumers and industries to replace palm oil with alternative vegetable oils based on factors such as price, availability, and specific product requirements. This phenomenon plays a crucial role in shaping demand for CPO and consequently influences its market prices. Factors Driving Substitution:

  • Price Competitiveness: The relative prices of different vegetable oils play a crucial role in driving substitution patterns. When the prices of alternative oils such as soybean, sunflower, or rapeseed oil become more competitive compared to CPO, consumers, and industries may opt to substitute palm oil with these alternatives to reduce costs.
  • Availability and Supply Chain Efficiency: The availability and efficiency of supply chains for alternative vegetable oils also influence substitution patterns. In regions where logistics and transportation infrastructure favor the delivery of certain oils over others, consumers and industries may choose to substitute palm oil with locally available alternatives to streamline supply chains and reduce logistical costs.
  • Regulatory Policies and Consumer Preferences: Regulatory policies aimed at promoting health, sustainability, or environmental conservation can influence substitution patterns by encouraging or discouraging the use of specific vegetable oils. Similarly, changing consumer preferences towards healthier or more sustainable alternatives may drive substitution away from palm oil towards other oils perceived as more desirable.
  • Product-Specific Requirements: Certain products and industries may have specific requirements or preferences regarding the properties of vegetable oils used in their formulations. For example, oils with specific flavor profiles, oxidative stability, or melting points may be preferred for different culinary or industrial applications, leading to substitution based on product-specific needs.


In conclusion, by delving into the multifaceted factors influencing crude palm oil (CPO) price fluctuations worldwide, we gain valuable insights into the dynamic nature of the palm oil market. Understanding these influences is paramount for stakeholders to navigate the complexities of CPO pricing, mitigate risks, and capitalize on emerging opportunities in this vital global commodity sector.